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Major components of a solar PV power system:
1. Solar PV panels 12/24 VDC.
2. Charge controller (Match the solar PV voltage with charge controller input voltage).
3. Deep cycle batteries. (Match the battery charging voltage with the charge controller output voltage).
4. Inverter. Connects to the battery. Be sure to match the inverter DC input (battery voltage) with your battery bank voltage.
5. Mounting hardware for your solar pv panels. This includes Side Pole, Top Pole, Ground, Roof, and tracking mounts.
PV power generation systems are made up of interconnected components, each with a specific function. One of the major strengths of photovoltaic (PV) systems is modularity. As your needs grow, individual components can be replaced or added to provided increases capacity. Although the selected components will vary depending on the applications, PV systems generally conform to the schematic shown above. What follows is a brief overview of a typical PV system.
Solar Array - The solar array consists of one or more PV modules which convert sunlight into electric energy. The modules are connected in series and/or parallel to provide the voltage and current levels to meet your needs. The array is usually mounted on a metal structure and tilted to face the sun.
Charge Controller - Although charge controllers can be purchased with many optional features, their main function is to maintain the batteries at the proper charge level, and protect them from overcharging.
Battery Bank - The battery bank contains one or more deep-cycle batteries, connected in series and/or parallel depending on the voltage and current capacity needed. The batteries store the power produced by the solar array and discharge it when you need it.
Inverter - An inverter is required when you want to power AC devices. The inverter converts the DC power from the solar array/batteries into AC power.
AC and DC Loads - These are the appliances (such as lights or radios), and the components (such as water pumps and microwaves repeaters), which consume the power generated by your PV array.
Balance of System - These components provide the interconnections and standard safety features required for any electrical power system. These include: array combiner box, properly sized cabling, fuses, switches, circuit breakers and meters.